Rumen Microbiome: Complex microbial communities, or microbiomes, help govern the digestive systems of ruminant livestock animals. The ability to identify and optimize microbiomes in cattle, sheep and buffalo could lead to a revolution in sustainable agriculture. This project is a groundbreaking method to measure animal efficiency, seamlessly identify herd animals most effective at converting food into milk and meat, and to reduce animal emissions of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. NRS is seeking to develop, with select research and industry stakeholders, a three-phased solution: introduce an industry-leading, accurate measurement product for animal efficiency, provide tools for selective intervention to optimize digestion in targeted animals, and to integrate optimized microbiota in feed and feed-additives to create herd-wide efficiencies. The addressable market is the world food chain with the opportunity to deliver dairy and poultry products from animals with far greater economic value and greatly reduced environmental impact.